Category: Sumeria

An Introduction To Sumerian History

During the 5th millennium BC a people known as the Ubaidians established settlements in the region known later as Sumer; these settlements gradually developed into the chief Sumerian cities, namely Adab, Eridu, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. Several centuries later, as the Ubaidian settlers prospered, Semites from Syrian and Arabian deserts began to infiltrate, both as peaceful immigrants and as raiders in quest of booty. After about 3250 BC, another people migrated from its homeland, located probably northeast of Mesopotamia, and began to intermarry with the native population. The newcomers, who became known as Sumerians, spoke an agglutinative language unrelated apparently to any other known language.

In the centuries that followed the immigration of the Sumerians, the country grew rich and powerful. Art and architecture, crafts, and religious and ethical thought flourished. The Sumerian language became the prevailing speech of the land, and the people here developed the cuneiform script, a system of writing on clay. This script was to become the basic means of written communication throughout the Middle East for about 2000 years.

Poetry from Ancient Sumeria

The Harpist from Ur Between two mighty rivers The Fertile Crescent expands Hanging Gardens Babel Tower Gates to Eden An old indigenous man Created a harp of his own Arched bough, silver and gold Lapis lazuli, ivory and pearl Sumerian

Proverbs from Ki-en-gir (Sumer), c. 2000 BCE

1. Whoever has walked with truth generates life. 2. Do not cut off the neck of that which has had its neck cut off. 3. That which is given in submission becomes a medium of defiance. 4. The destruction is

Enki and Ninursag, a Sumerian Myth

Enki and Ninursag Pure are the cities — and you are the ones to whom they are allotted. Pure is Dilmun land. Pure is Sumer — and you are the ones to whom it is allotted. Pure is Dilmun land.

Enki, A Sumerian High God

‘Enki and the World Order’ is one of the longest and best preserved of the extant Sumerian narrative poems. The poem begins with a hymn of praise addressed to Enki; some of it is destroyed and unintelligible, but generally speaking,

The Epic of Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh: Tablet 1 The one who saw all [Sha nagba imuru ]I will declare to the world, The one who knew all I will tell about [line missing] He saw the great Mystery, he knew the Hidden: He recovered the knowledge