2.13 Rocky Mountains, Formation of the Southern Rockies: Still an Enigma being Debated by Geologists The portion of the Rocky Mountains that extends from Southern Montana to New Mexico was produced by a period of deformation known as the Laramide …

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2.12 Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest: the Cascadia Subduction Zone and Juan de Fuca Plate Seismic studies have shown that the Cascadia subduction zone exhibits less earthquake activity than any other subduction zone along the margin of the Pacific basin. …

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2.11-B Mantle Convection: Buoyancy and Uplift: Vertical Movements of the Crust Mantle convection is a cause of vertical crustal movement. Based on studies of Earth’s gravitational field, it became clear that up and down convective flow in the mantle also …

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2.11-A Uplift, Isostasy, and Isostatic Adjustment : Vertical Movements of the Crust In addition to the large crustal displacement driven mainly by plate tectonics, gradual up-and-down motions of the continental crust are observed at many locations around the globe. Although …

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