Proverbs from Ki-en-gir (Sumer), c. 2000 BCE

1. Whoever has walked with truth generates life.

2. Do not cut off the neck of that which has had its neck cut off.

3. That which is given in submission becomes a medium of defiance.

4. The destruction is from his own personal god; he knows no savior.

5. Wealth is hard to come by, but poverty is always at hand.

6. He acquires many things, he must keep close watch over them.

7. A boat bent on honest pursuits sailed downstream with the wind; Utu has sought out honest ports for it.

8. He who drinks too much beer must drink water.

9. He who eats too much will not be able to sleep.

10. Since my wife is at the outdoor shrine, and furthermore since my mother is at the river, I shall die of hunger, he says.

11. May the goddess Inanna cause a hot-limited wife to lie down for you; May she bestow upon you broad-armed sons; May she seek out for you a place of Happiness.

12. The fox could not build his own house, and so he came to the house of his friend as a conqueror.

13. The fox, having urinated into the sea, said AThe whole of the sea is my urine.@

14. The poor man nibbles at his silver.

15. The poor are the silent ones of the land.

16. All the households of the poor are not equally submissive.

17. A poor man does not strike his son a single blow; he treasures him forever.


Scanned by: J. S. Arkenberg, Dept. of History, Cal. State Fullerton. Prof. Arkenberg has modernized the text.